|As Obesity Cases Rise, New Diabetes-Cases Fall In .U.S.|
- The number of people with diabetes has increased from. 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014.
- Global spread of diabetes * among adults over 18 years has increased from 4.7% in 1980 to 8.5% in .2014 (1).
- The prevalence of diabetes is growing rapidly in middle and low-income countries.
- Diabetes is a major cause of blindness, renal failure, heart attacks, stroke and dissection of lower limbs.
- In .2016, estimated 1.6 million deaths were directly due to diabetes. In 2012, high blood glucose caused more than 2.2 million deaths.
- Nearly half of all the deaths due to high blood sugar occur before the age of 70 years. WHO estimates that diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death in 2016.
- Healthy diet, regular physical activity, maintaining normal body weight and avoiding tobacco use are ways to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes.
- Diabetes can be treated and its results may be avoided or delayed with the treatment of diet, physical activity, medication and regular screening and complications.
What is diabetes?
Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body can not effectively use the insulin produced. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar. Hyperglycaemia, or increased blood sugar, is a general effect of uncontrolled diabetes and over time, many systems of the body, especially nerves and blood vessels cause serious damage to the body.
In .2014, 8.5% of adults aged 18 and above had diabetes. In 2016, diabetes was a direct cause of 1.6 million deaths and in 2012, high blood sugar was the reason for another 2.2 million deaths.
Type 1 diabetes
The decrease of type 1 diabetes (previously known as insulin-dependent, juvenile or childhood-starting) is characterized by insulin production and requires daily administration of insulin. The cause of type 1 diabetes is not known and it is not preventable with current knowledge.
Symptoms include excess urine (polyurea), thirst (polydipsia), persistent appetite, weight loss, vision changes and fatigue. These symptoms can be sudden.
Diabetes type 2
Type 2 diabetes (previously called non-insulin-dependent, or adult-beginner) results from the ineffective use of the body's insulin. Type 2 diabetes involves the majority of diabetes around the world, and is largely the result of excess weight and physical inactivation of the body.
Symptoms can be similar to type 1 diabetes, but often are less marked. Consequently, many years after the onset of the disease can be diagnosed, once complications have already arisen.
Until recently, this type of diabetes was only seen in adults, but now it is also growing in children.
What are the general consequences of diabetes?Over .time, diabetes can damage the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys and nerves.
Adults with diabetes have two to three times more risk of heart attacks and stroke (1).
Combined with low blood flow, neuropathy (nerve damage) in the legs increases the possibility of foot ulcers, the final requirement for infection and organ dissection is required.
Diabetic Retinopathy is an important cause of blindness, and it occurs as a result of long accumulated damage to small blood vessels in the retina. 2.6% of. global blindness can be attributed to diabetes (2).
Diabetes is one of the major causes of kidney failure (3).
How can the burden of diabetes be reduced?
PreventionSimple .lifestyle measures have been shown to be effective in preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes .To. help prevent type 2 diabetes and its complications, people should:
- To obtain and maintain healthy body weight;
- Be physically active - Regular, moderate-intensity activity of at least 30 minutes in most days. More control is needed for weight control;
- Eat a healthy diet, avoid eating sugar and saturated fats; And
- Avoid Tobacco Use - Smoking increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
The initial diagnosis can be accomplished through a relatively inexpensive test of blood sugar.
Reducing blood glucose in the treatment of diabetes includes diet and physical activity and levels of other known risk factors that harm the blood vessels. Tobacco use termination is also important to avoid complications.
Interventions involved in both cost and savings in developing countries include:
- Blood sugar control, especially in type 1 diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes need insulin, people with type 2 diabetes can be treated with oral medication, but insulin may also be required;
- Blood pressure control; And
- Foot care
- Other cost savings interventions include:
- Treatment for screening and retinopathy (which causes blindness)
- Blood lipid control (to control cholesterol levels)
- Examine the initial signs of diabetic kidney disease and treatment related to diabetes.
The purpose of WHO is to adopt and encourage effective measures for monitoring, prevention and control of diabetes and its complications, especially in low and middle income countries. For this, the WHO:
- Scientific guidelines for the prevention of major non-communicable diseases, including diabetes;
- Develop standards and standards for Diabetes Diagnosis and Care;
- World Diabetes Day (November 14), creates awareness on the global epidemic of diabetes; And
- Monitor diabetes and its risk factors.
WHO "Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health" focuses on WHO's diabetes function by focusing on a population-wide approach to promoting healthy diet and regular physical activity, with the overweight people and the growing global of obesity The problem can be reduced.
* Fasting was defined with the history of blood glucose equivalent or more than 7 mmol / L, or on drug for raised blood glucose, or diabetes diagnosis.
** High blood sugar is defined as the distribution of fasting plasma glucose in the population, which is more than theoretical distribution, which will reduce the risk for health (obtained from the study of epidemiology). High blood sugar is a statistical concept, not clinical or clinical class.